Adam (AS) was a prophet of Allah and the first ever human to be created. Allah created Adam (AS) out of clay from different parts of the earth. The soul of Adam (AS) was blown by Allah Himself.
After the creation of Adam (AS), Allah told the angels about Adam (AS) and as the human he would become Allah’s vicegerent (successor or deputy, khalifah in Arabic) who will serve to prosper the earth.
The angels asked Allah, "Will You place one there who would create disorder and shed blood, while we intone Your litanies and sanctify Your name?”, and He responded, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”.
Note that the statement made by the angels was not in a disputing manner, nor did they go against what Allah has said.
Adam (AS) was blessed with the intellect that made him able to learn, observe and understand things. Adam (AS) was also though the names of everything, including the angels, as stated in Surah Al-Baqarah 2:31, when Allah placed him before the angels and told them, "Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful.”.
The angels have not been given this knowledge yet, so they responded, "Glory to You (O Allah), we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.”.
Allah then said to Adam (AS), "O Adam, inform them of their names.”, and when he informed them of their names, Allah said, "Did I not tell you that I know the unknown of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed.”.
Allah then said to the angels of the heavens, "Prostrate before Adam”. This command included the Jinn, Iblis, but Iblis (Shaytan) arrogantly refused.
Allah asked Iblis why he refused to prostrate before Adam (AS), and Iblis said “I am superior than him. You created me from the fire and created Adam from the clay/mud.”.
As a result, Allah expelled him from heaven, but not before Iblis made a final request. To give him eternal life until the day of resurrection to he could try and misguide the children of Adam. Allah approved him petition and told the cursed Iblis, "Go with your followers who will be the fuel of hell. You will not be able to mislead My servants who have believed in me with all their heart and have a steady faith which will not be roared by your appeal.".
Shaytan was removed from the ranks of angels and he became Allah’s biggest enemy till the Day of Judgment.
After Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam (AS), Before giving Adam (AS) a place in paradise, Allah noticed that Adam (AS) was quite lonely, so Allah created Hawwa (Eve), to be a spouse and life friend to Adam (AS). Allah then told them, "O Adam, both you and your spouse live in the Paradise, eat freely to your fill wherever you like, but approach not this tree or you will become transgressors/wrongdoers.”.
Adam (AS) and Eve understood that they were forbidden from eating from the tree. Adam (AS) was, however, human, and it is in our nature to forget. Shaytan was also filled which envy and decided to take advantage of Adam’s (AS) humanity. So day after day he whispered to him, “Shall I guide you to the tree of immortality and the eternal kingdom”.
In his mission to misguide them, Shaytan promised them eternal life and the ability to become angels. He said to them, "Indeed, I am to you from among the sincere advisors.”.
So, as the years went by they eventually forgot about Allahs warning and they decided to eat the fruit from the tree. As they ate from the tree their private parts became apparent to them (Their awrah was previously covered), so they covered themselves from the leaves of paradise.
Allah calls out to them and says, "Did I not forbid you from that tree and tell you that Satan is to you a clear enemy?”.
Adam (AS) and Hawwa repented to Allah and said, "Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will surely be among the losers.”.
Allah accepted their repentance, but also deprived them form the blessings of heaven. So, he sent them down to each that said, "Descend, being to one another enemies. And for you on the earth is a place of settlement and enjoyment for a time. Therein you will live, and therein you will die, and from it you will be brought forth."
When they were sent to Earth, Adam and Eve were then separated in two different places. Ibn-e-Abi Hatim recorded Ibn-e-Abbas saying that Allah sent Adam (AS) to earth to an area called “Dahna”, between Makkah and At-Taif. Al-Hasan-Al-Basri said that Adam (AS) was sent down to India, while Eve was sent to Jeddah. They both searched for each other. It took them 40 days to see each other on a hill in the Arabian Peninsula called Jabal Rahmah of Arafat (Near Makkah, Saudi Arabia). Adam and Eve eventually gathered and reunited. Allah then made Adam (AS) the first prophet on earth.
Adam (AS) knew that on earth, he would face hardship, struggle and conflict. He knew he had to protect himself, his wife, and his children from the earthly creatures, hardships, and above all else evil. He knew that those who don’t follow Allah’s guidance and follow Shaytan will all be punished and knew that Shaytan was indeed a sworn enemy.
Though, Allah didn’t leave the human race to go through these hardships alone as he said to them, "Go, all of you. When I send guidance, whoever follows it will neither have fear nor regret.”.
Adam (AS) and Eve populated the earth together, as they raised and taught their children. Adam (AS) and Eve only had two sets of twins, with the twins being the opposite gender (One boy and one girl for each set).
Adam (AS) and Eve’s first children were the first set of twins Qabil (Cain) and his sister Iqlima and the second set of twins Habil (Abel) and Labuda. For the sake of population, Allah allowed the children to marry one another, but they could not marry their twin. This meant that a boy in one twin set had to marry a girl an another twin set and vice versa. So, per the rules, Cain would be with baud and Abel would be with Iqlima.
Though, Qabil was displeased with Iqlima, as Habil’s twin sister was not as beautiful as his own.
Habil was an intelligent and righteous person. He followed the command of Allah, and in return Allah blessed him with purity and compassion. Though, Qabil was not like his brother, he was arrogant, selfish, and disobedient to his lord.
Allah told Adam (AS) to tell his sons to offer a sacrifice and the one who fulfills it will have the right to marry a companion of his choice. Habil offered his best animal, while Qabil offered his worse crops. Allah did not accept Qabil’s sacrifice and Qabil became angry. He turned to Habil and exclaimed, 'I will surely kill you.’, Habil responded and said, 'Allah accepts offerings only from the God-fearing. Even if you stretch forth your hand against me to kill, I will not stretch forth my hand to kill you. Surely, I fear Allah, the Lord of the entire universe’.
This caused Qabil to grab and strike his brother Habil. This was the first murder on earth. This is when Allah sent forth a crow to show Qabil how to bury his brother. Qabil buried his brother, but stayed stubborn and failed to repent to Allah.
Adam (AS) was in grief, as one of his sons has been killed and the other was son over by the Shaytan. At that time, Adam (AS) was a prophet and he started advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah and calling them to believe in Him. Adam (AS) told them about Shaytan and warned them by describing his own experience with him. Adam (AS) also told them how Shaytan tempted Qabil to kill his own brother. Adam (AS) also warned them that Shaytan was an eternal enemy of mankind and that he will never stop and misguiding mankind up until the Day of Resurrection.
After many years, Adam (AS) grew old. With his death coming closer, he appointed his son Sheath (Seth), third son of Adam & Eve, to be his successor. Adam taught Sheath appropriate acts of worship along with all the commands/teachings of Allah.
Adam (AS), lived for nearly 1000 years old. Before his death, Adam (AS) assured his children that Allah would not leave mankind alone on earth, but would send prophets and messengers to guide them. The prophets would have different names, traits, and miracles, but they would be united in one thing; they will all call to worship Allah alone. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the Angels entered his room and surrounded him. When Adam recognizes the Angle of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully. The angels then washed and enshrouded him. They put scent on him and dug his grave. They put Adam in grave and then covered the grave with mud-brick. Eve died one or two years after the death of Prophet Adam and was buried near him.